Adhikari, A., & Taylor, P. 2016. “Transformative education and community development: Sharing learning to challenge inequality.” In Class, inequality and community development, edited by Shaw M. & Mayo M.: 189-204. Bristol: Bristol University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1t88x5w.17
Abstract: This chapter aims to reflect on ways in which schooling can play a different role in society: as a transformative force that makes a real difference by empowering those who are marginalised due to their position and constructed role in society. Using case studies from India – a country of over a billion people and home to some of the greatest societal inequalities in the world – it presents examples of specific transformative educational approaches and methodologies that have helped communities to co-construct diverse forms of knowledge, which have led to practical, positive change in their lives. The chapter begins with some reflections on the relationship between knowledge, power and education; it then explores some of the opportunities that these approaches provide as well as some challenges in their application.
Bills, D. 2016. “EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT.” In The Sociology of Development Handbook, edited by Hooks G., Makaryan S., Almeida P., Brown D., Cohn S., Curran S., et al.: 241-262. Oakland, California: University of California Press.
Abstract: Many reviews of the education and development literature are framed around an obvious paradox: if the linkages between schooling and development are so empirically shaky, why is the public (and, to some degree, scholarly) faith in this relationship so strong? This is an interesting question that has produced some valuable insight into the role of mass schooling in the contemporary world (see especially Chabbott and Ramirez 2000). I will adopt a very different framing here. I argue that the relationships between education and development vary across different units of analysis. The relationship is a nested one, calling for different sociological concepts and theories depending on whether one is trying to account for linkages at the individual, firm, regional, or national levels. Sociologists stand to make their greatest contributions at the middle (or “meso”) levels,those of the firm and the region, and may be advised to shift—at least temporarily—their focus away from the individual and national levels. In this chapter, I will accept the fact of the (usually) positive empirical relationship between education and economic development, but I problematize it theoretically and conceptually as a nested relationship. Given the limited space available here, I am going to home in on economic development, ignoring for the most part the vast and important work on how schooling might contribute to, for example, political development, civic involvement, human rights, or family structure and stability (Hannum and Buchmann 2004).
Blanchet-Cohen, N., Manolson, S., & Shaw, K. 2014. “Youth-Led Decision Making in Community Development Grants.” Youth & Society 46, No. 6: 819–834.
Abstract: This study examines youth-led decision making (YLDM) among groups of youth who are providers or recipients of community development grants. Focus groups, interviews, and participant observation with 14- to 20-year-olds and supporting adults showed youth have a preference for consensus-based decisions. Youth used due process to reach decisions while valuing differing viewpoints. Adults created appropriate spaces and guided without controlling. Youth directly involved in the YLDM process experienced the greatest and most immediate benefit though other youth, and the community as a whole also felt positive impacts over time. The study considers the type of supports required for young people to make meaningful decisions and points to the capacity of youth, and the potential of YLDM, for community development.
Burnett, N. 2014. “International Education Policies, Issues, and Challenges.” In Education, Learning, Training: Critical Issues for Development, edited by Carbonnier G., Carton M., & King K.: 27-36. LEIDEN; BOSTON: Brill.
Abstract: This short chapter discusses the rights and capabilities of, and development approaches to, education in developing countries, the recent evolution of developing countries’ education systems in the present century, the ‘leaderless globalisation’ of the international institutions currently responsible for education, and the initial effects of the data and evaluation revolution on education. It concludes with five recommendations: evidence should be used more in education strategies, policies and practices; innovation needs to be encouraged; international funding should target more the neediest countries; assessment, benchmarking, and evaluation should be further encouraged; and a new international governance mechanism is needed for education, possibly led from outside the education sector itself.
Carbonnier, G., Carton, M., & King, K. 2014. “International Education and Development: Histories, Parallels, Crossroads.” In Education, Learning, Training: Critical Issues for Development, edited by Carbonnier G., Carton M., & King K.: 3-26. LEIDEN; BOSTON: Brill.
Abstract: Education has been a priority sector when considering foreign aid allocation since the 1970s. The stated objective has been to ensure universal access to basic education, with a more recent emphasis on quality and outcomes. Aware that these goals will not be met universally, the major actors involved in the post-2015 debate are turning back to the concept of learning. In this chapter, we briefly review major scholarly work and strategic papers that have shaped the discourse and policies of international development organisations and national actors over the past four decades. We discuss how the central notions of skills, learning, and both formal and non-formal education have evolved in conjunction with ideological shifts. We examine the tensions between public and private education as well as between individualised and standardised delivery modes. We further look at (big) data and online education promises. To conclude, we question the current focus of major stakeholders on post-2015, post-EFA agendas. As several articles in this special issue underscore, national policies and local practices are largely driven by persistent political economy dynamics while the influence of ‘the global agenda’ tends to remain confined to the international cooperation community itself.
Colenbrander, S., & Archer, D. 2016. (Rep.). International Institute for Environment and Development.
Abstract: By 2050, two-thirds of people worldwide will live in urban areas. Many city dwellers in the global South live in informal settlements, without access to basic services. The global Sustainable Development Goals seek to redress this inequity with an overarching aim to ‘leave no one behind’. This paper examines what organised low-income community networks are already doing to ensure no one is ‘left behind’ in urban development. It presents examples from Cambodia, Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines and Thailand where community organisations have sought to include all community members –whether disabled, elderly or extremely poor – in upgrading activities, and offers recommendations to scale up action.
Draxler, A. 2014. “International Investment in Education for Development: Public Good or Economic Tool?” In Education, Learning, Training: Critical Issues for Development, edited by Carbonnier G., Carton M., & King K.: 37-56. LEIDEN; BOSTON: Brill.
Abstract: Is education a human right or a driver of economic development? How international organisations frame their strategies is determined to a great extent by their response to this question. This chapter argues that a sound education system is one that is rights-based and seeks to achieve social cohesion, equality of access, and equity of opportunity. Efforts to generate economic returns from education to individuals and societies, while important, should not dominate development policies. As the post-2015 Development Agenda emerges, tensions between those who perceive education as a human right and those who see it as a tool of economic development are increasingly coming to the fore, notably due to growing influence and interest among international private entities, both foundations and corporations, in steering the agenda towards the development of market opportunities. The author argues that preserving the role of the state as the ultimate democratic arbiter of rights, equality, and equity is the only way, albeit imperfect, of guaranteeing education as a public good.
Gurung, H., Bhandari, B., & Abe, O. 2003. “Education for Sustainable Development in Nepal: Views and Visions.” Institute for Global Environmental Strategies: 219-230.
Abstract:The Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED, 1987). In the context of Nepal, the sustainable development is defined broadly. “The overarching goal of sustainable development in Nepal is to expedite the process that provides to its citizens and successive generations at least the basic means of livelihood with the broadest of opportunities in the field of social, economic, political, cultural, and ecological aspects of their lives (NPC/MOPE: 2003:1)`.A wide range of choices can only be achieved to integrate social, economic and environmental considerations by enhancing their management capacities. The perspective on sustainable communities could be different from one country to another based on the social and cultural values. Generally, sustainable communities can be defined as those communities that have managed their well-being by maintaining their harmony with the natural environment. John Fien and Daniella Tilbury (2002) defined that: “Sustainable community development is a process of local empowerment that enhances the ability of people to control their own lives and the conditions under which they live. This involves learning and action to ensure that as many people as possible participate in making decisions about the issues and problems that need addressing and work collaboratively to implement them. Sustainable community development means taking action to ensure that poverty is addressed by actions that both redistribute wealth appropriately and generate productive and stable Employment.” As stated above the heart of sustainable community development is people and their ability to manage their own development and environmental affairs. It is a people-centered development. The three Ps – policies, programs and processes– for implementation of the community led initiatives are discussed in support of creating sustainable communities. Sustainable community development program (SCDP) is one of the best practices that use education as a means to achieve sustainable development. ESD has been regarded as a crosscutting tool to respond the local challenges of sustainable development.
Hudečková, H., & Husák, J. 2015. “Rural school in the context of community-led local development.” Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica, 46, No.1: 33-40.
Abstract: The paper is based on the general concept of knowledge society and deals with regional development theories which emphasize local environment as an important part of rural development. The following two questions were studied: (1) What is the early experience of municipalities when establishing a Community School? (2) In which other municipalities would it be possible and appropriate to build such a school? For this purpose, both secondary and primary research methods were combined with data collection techniques – document study, observation, and questioning. Because the examined problem is set in the context of community-led local development (CLLD), violation of the ‘bottom-up’ approach principle is also highlighted. The paper presents the first experiences in the establishment of seven Community Schools within the Pilsen region and based on them also recommendations for the feasibility and suitability of establishing this type of school in other rural municipalities. The results show that the educational sector is not assisting in the modernization of rural schools with regard to community education and that the possibility of the contemporary and meaningful existence of schools in small rural municipalities remains ignored.
James, P., Nadarajah, Y., Haive, K., Stead, V., Age, A., Annear, P., Yomba, J. 2012. “Learning beyond Formal Education.” In Sustainable Communities, Sustainable Development: Other Paths for Papua New Guinea: 342-373. University of Hawai’i Press.
Abstract: In this chapter we explore the contribution that nonformal and informal learning can make toward the realization of sustainable development and the strengthening of local communities and livelihoods in Papua New Guinea. The terms “nonformal” and “informal” learning encompass a broad range of activities and initiatives that take place outside the formal school system.Non-formal learning tends to be defined as learning undertaken through unaccredited courses delivered in community learning centers and other community settings, and in workplaces. However, many of the initiatives discussed in this chapter also refer to what is normally defined as “informal learning”: that is, activities associated with family, community, and leisure pursuits, where learning accompanies the primary purpose of the activity. Examples include planting and nurturing crops, preparing food, and producing artifacts, or, at the other end of the spectrum, practicing a new sporting technique.
For the purposes of this discussion, informal learning will be drawn into a broader definition of non formal learning. This is the term used by the PNG Department for Community Development to cover all learning for individuals and communities that takes place outside of the formal school system through community learning centers and informal learning networks. Instances of non-formal learning in Papua New Guinea include short courses and workshops run by church or government agencies, for example, on sewing or the use of new agricultural techniques; HIV/AIDS awareness workshops; adult literacy and numeracy training; community-based vernacular preschools; and vocational training. However, it is important to remember that non formal learning also includes practices and forms of tribal education that have been part of Papua New Guinean community life for thousands of years: learning how to fish or make gardens; passing on customary skills such as canoe making, dancing, or building houses from bush materials; or teaching local stories, songs, and the histories of clans and families.
Mukute, M., Aguilar, O., Masilela, M., & Olvitt, L. 2017. “COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION.” In Urban Environmental Education Review, edited by Krasny M. & Russ A. :124-132. ITHACA; LONDON: Cornell University Press.
Highlights: Community environmental education uses environmental learning and action to foster community wellness in cities and other settings. Social learning encompasses a diversity of learning theories, all of which focus on learning through interaction with others. Communities of practice and cultural historical activity theory are two social learning frameworks useful in understanding community environmental education.
Martin, A. E. , Cunningham, S. C. & Magnus, J. H. 2011. “Professional Development Using Student-Led, Community-Based Activities.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 17, No. 4: 354–357.
Abstract:As a community health education center affiliated with an academic institution, we recognize that by investing in the professional development of our students, we not only maximize our own outcomes but those of our students as well. Our project, Creating Community Connections, was developed to aid the work of our Center in characterizing the evolving community landscape following Hurricane Katrina while providing opportunities for students to engage in experiential learning. Students in the project could gain skills in program planning and community assessment, as well as leadership and communications. Twenty-three students worked on the project during its 2 years, developing data collection tools, organizing and conducting key informant interviews, facilitating focus groups and community forums, managing data, and summarizing project findings for community presentations. Participation in this project allowed our students to grow as public health leaders and researchers while gaining a greater appreciation for community collaboration.
Mawere, M., & Nenduva, M. 2016. “Education Policy, Exclusion and Development: Filling the Gaps in Zimbabwe’s Public Education for Socio-Economic Development.” In Development Perspectives from the South: Troubling the Metrics of [Under-]development in Africa, edited by Mawere M.: 241-286. Mankon, Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG.
Abstract: Although inclusive education is echoed in the Zimbabwean Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education Mission statement, there is firm propagation that there is a mismatch between policy and implementation which seems to work without particular benchmarks and timelines. Against this background this chapter interrogates the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education of Zimbabwe’s reluctance to assume a complete paradigm shift. It argues that such reluctance can be mistaken for a misplaced priority and a misguided decision which makes the so-called inclusive education more of hoopla with no commitment to inclusivity and national development. On this note, the chapter further examine exclusion in education by sex and gender, disability and language. This choice is informed by the realisation that exclusion has continued to underplay the loftier goal of development in Zimbabwe while on the other end inclusive education is far becoming rhetoric on paper which is never implemented to the full.
McCloskey, S. 2015. “Development Education as an Agent of Social Change.” In From the Local to the Global (3rd edition): Key Issues in Development Studies, edited by McCloskey S. & McCann G.: 302-320. London: Pluto Press.
Abstract: This chapter begins by outlining the Southern origins of the DE sector in the global North, pointing to the main parameters and aims of the sector before going on to discuss its main theoretical and practical inspiration in the work of Paulo Freire. It draws on the author’s experience of the DE sector in Britain and Ireland to highlight the advances it has made over the past 20 years, while noting the challenges inherent in steering a funding and policy line often too closely intertwined with that of government. It concludes with an assessment of the sector’s prospects in a post-recessionary world, arguing that it is primed for renewal through a closer alignment with its natural constituency in civil society.
McCloskey, S. 2015. “What Development Education Can Bring to the Sustainability Agenda.” In Sustainability Frontiers: Critical and Transformative Voices from the Borderlands of Sustainability Education, edited by Selby D. & Kagawa F.: 135-146. Opladen; Berlin; Toronto: Verlag Barbara Budrich.
Abstract: The chapter suggests that development education can bring positive synergies including a radical learning methodology and action outcomes to the sustainability agenda. However, the development and environment sectors need toward more meaningful and transformative methods consistent with Freirean practice. I will begin with a brief overview of the key concepts of Freirean thought before considering the commonalities and differences between DE, EE and ESD. I will then examine the implications for all three sectors of the shallowness underpinning the relationship between large development and environment non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the public, arguing ‘that large coalitions can – and must – be built across third sector organisations to bring about a values change in society’ (ibid., 1)
McKeown, R. 2007. “Education for Sustainable Development and the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development: An Overview.” Internationale Schulbuchforschung 29, No. 2: 147-158.
Abstract: Education for sustainable development (ESD ) has its roots in the history of two distinct areas of interest of the United Nations – education and sustainable development. The U.N. Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UNDESD) ties the ongoing interest in education to the current overarching theme of sustainable development. ESD has four major thrusts: (1) improve access to quality basic education y (2) reorient existing education to address sustainable development , (3) develop public understanding and awareness , and (4) provide training programs for all sectors of private and civil society. ESD is implemented in myriad ways so that it is locally relevant and culturally appropriate , reflecting the environmental social , and economic conditions of each locality. ESD in the formal education sector is implemented the disciplinary , whole-school educational-system , and international levels. Barriers to implementing ESD are changing; currently they include ongoing challenges like teaching transdisciplinary sustainability topics in schools with disciplinary frameworks. Research at all levels is needed to advance ESD and to monitor progress during the UNDESD.
Ndinga-Kanga, M. 2018. “Local Networks for Peace: Lessons from Community-Led Peacebuilding,“ edited by CONNOLLY, L. & POWERS, L.: 21-26. International Peace Institute.
Abstract: This report explores one of these peacebuilding networks in contemporary South Africa: the Community Action Groups (CAGs), which were convened by a formal nongovernmental organization called the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR). CSVR formed the CAGs as a formal network, and it serves as the central body that facilitates shared learning and development across them to ensure they are working toward common peacebuilding objectives. This report unpacks the role the CAGs can play in ending violence and the structural, political, and economic challenges they face.
Ofei-Manu, P., Didham, R., Atiti, A., Yasuda, S., Tabucanon, M., Vanhala, K., . . . Quyen, P. 2012. (Report). Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.
Abstract: This section discusses the conceptual background to the learning performance framework, and argues that there are key aspects of ESD with several characteristics that are expressed in ESD practice and are also seen in a number of relevant educational/learning theories and methods. These key ESD aspects and their corresponding characteristics are identified and synthesised into a framework of reference. The Framework of ESD Learning Performance (LP) presented in this work has been developed as an original interpretation of the holistic attributes that contribute to ESD learning performance. However, it is also heavily supported by existing educational/learning theories and methods, and where possible elaboration of the individual elements and characteristics identified in the framework are provided based on supporting literature. These additional reviews of supporting educational/learning theories and methods are presented not as the exclusive attributes of this framework, but rather they are to provide some additional understanding and entry points for further exploration of these various characteristics. This section also attempts to link the practices from the various RCE case studies (in the form of educational/learning process and content) with the elemental characteristics of the learning performance (LP) framework. This is done though with the understanding that current implementation of ESD initiatives pays little attention to the theoretical underpinnings of education/learning process and content and consequently the effectiveness of ESD LP.
Phillips, K. 2013. “Dividing the Labor of Development: Education and Participation in Rural Tanzania.” Comparative Education Review 57, No. 4: 637-661.
Abstract: Since the 1940s, the concept of community participation has framed, mobilized, and legitimated national development agendas in the Singida Region of rural central Tanzania. Based on 19 months of ethnographic and archival research, this study examines the forms of community participation elicited through state and international development initiatives aimed at achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Building on theorizations of “trusteeship” as an organizing principle of development, this article highlights the way in which educational credentials configure the distribution of roles,responsibilities, and rewards of participatory development initiatives. I argue that, despite the equalizing claims of participation, the trusteeship phenomenon legitimates a radically asymmetrical distribution of labor and authority. Through schooling’s symbolic and cultural work, the educated become the mind and voice of development, while the lesser educated become its hands.
Schusler, T., Davis-Manigaulte, J., & Cutter-Mackenzie, A. 2017. “POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT.” In Urban Environmental Education Review, edited by Russ A. & Krasny M.: 165-174. ITHACA; LONDON: Cornell University Press.
Highlights: Positive youth development is an assets-based approach for cultivating competencies essential to personal well-being. When environmental education enables children and youths to contribute to improving urban environments, it can not only increase cities’ sustainability and resilience but also foster young people’s personal growth. Participatory action research, peer education, and youth civic engagement are three educational approaches that can lead to positive change for both urban environments and youths living within them.